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Mountain Ranges in India

India is home to several mountain ranges, some of which are quite famous for their natural beauty and cultural significance. Here’s a list of major mountain ranges in India:

List of major mountain ranges in India

  • Himalayas: This is the highest and the most extensive mountain range in India. It spans across several states including Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, and Arunachal Pradesh. Some of the highest peaks in the world, including Mount Everest, are part of the Himalayas.
  • Western Ghats: Also known as the Sahyadri Range, it runs parallel to the western coast of India, stretching from Gujarat to Kerala. These mountains are known for their rich biodiversity and are home to many endemic species of flora and fauna.
  • Eastern Ghats: These mountains run along the eastern coast of India, covering states like Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and parts of Karnataka. They are not as high as the Western Ghats but are significant nonetheless.
  • Aravalli Range: This range runs across the states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana, and Delhi. It’s one of the oldest mountain ranges in the world and serves as a natural barrier between the Thar Desert and the plains of the Indian subcontinent.
  • Satpura Range: Located in central India, primarily in the states of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, the Satpura Range is known for its rugged terrain and dense forests.
  • Vindhya Range: This range runs parallel to the Satpura Range, separating the northern and southern parts of India. It stretches across the states of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Bihar.
  • Western Himalayas: While the entire Himalayan range extends into India, the Western Himalayas specifically refer to the portion that lies within the states of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.
  • Eastern Himalayas: This refers to the portion of the Himalayas that lies within the states of Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, and parts of Assam.
  • Purvanchal Range: Also known as the Eastern Hills or the Puro Mountain Range, this range is located in the northeastern states of India, including Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, and Meghalaya.

Mountain Range Height (meters) Location
Himalayas 8,848 Northern region (Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, and Arunachal Pradesh)
Karakoram Range 8,611 Jammu & Kashmir
Pir Panjal Range 4,100 Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir
Zanskar Range 6,000 Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh region
Dhauladhar Range 4,800 Himachal Pradesh
Aravalli Range 1,725 Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana
Western Ghats 2,695 western coast of India (Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala)
Eastern Ghats 1,680 Eastern coast of India (Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu)
Vindhya Range 1,350 Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh
Satpura Range 1,350 Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh


  • Key Points:
    • India boasts a diverse range of mountain systems, each with its unique characteristics and significance.
    • The Himalayas, with peaks reaching towering heights, dominate the northern landscape and serve as a natural barrier protecting the Indian subcontinent.
    • The Western and Eastern Ghats, running parallel to the coastlines, are known for their rich biodiversity and scenic landscapes.
    • Other mountain ranges such as the Aravalli, Vindhya, and Satpura play crucial roles in shaping the geography and climate of their respective regions.
    • These mountain systems are not only important for their ecological and environmental significance but also hold cultural and historical importance in India’s heritage.

Mountain Ranges in India: More Details

  1. Himalayas
    • The Himalayas are not only the highest mountain range in India but also in the world. Mount Everest, the highest peak on Earth, is located in the Himalayas.
    • The range spans about 2,400 kilometers (1,500 miles) and includes several other notable peaks such as K2, Kangchenjunga, and Lhotse.
    • It plays a crucial role in influencing the climate of the Indian subcontinent, acting as a barrier to the cold winds from Central Asia and causing the Indian monsoon.
    • The Himalayas are culturally significant, being revered in Hinduism, Buddhism, and other religions. Many pilgrimage sites and sacred locations are nestled within these mountains.
  2. Western Ghats:
    • The Western Ghats are older than the Himalayas and are recognized as one of the world’s eight hottest biodiversity hotspots.
    • They are home to a diverse array of flora and fauna, including many endemic species found nowhere else on Earth.
    • The range acts as a barrier to the southwest monsoon winds, leading to heavy rainfall on the windward side and creating lush rainforests.
    • Several rivers originate in the Western Ghats, contributing to the water resources of peninsular India.
  3. Eastern Ghats:
    • The Eastern Ghats are comparatively lower in altitude and less continuous than the Western Ghats.
    • They are known for their scenic beauty, with rolling hills, forests, and waterfalls.
    • The Eastern Ghats are less explored and developed for tourism compared to the Western Ghats.
    • These mountains are home to various indigenous tribes with unique cultures and traditions.
  4. Aravalli Range:
    • The Aravalli Range is one of the oldest fold mountain ranges in the world, formed around 350 million years ago.
    • It is rich in mineral resources, including copper, zinc, and marble, which have been mined for centuries.
    • The range serves as a natural barrier, influencing the climate and vegetation patterns of the surrounding regions.
    • Mount Abu, the only hill station in the state of Rajasthan, is located in the southern part of the Aravalli Range.
  5. Satpura Range:
    • The Satpura Range is characterized by rugged terrain, deep valleys, and dense forests.
    • It is a haven for wildlife, with several national parks and wildlife sanctuaries located within its boundaries.
    • The Narmada River, one of the major rivers of central India, flows through a rift valley formed by the Satpura Range.
    • The range has significant geological and archaeological importance, with ancient rock formations and cave paintings found in the region.

Mountain Ranges in India: Questions

  1. Which is the highest mountain range in India?
    • Answer: The Himalayas
  2. Which is the highest peak in the Himalayas and the world?
    • Answer: Mount Everest
  3. Which mountain range runs parallel to the western coast of India?
    • Answer: Western Ghats
  4. Which mountain range acts as a natural barrier between the Thar Desert and the Indian subcontinent?
    • Answer: Aravalli Range
  5. Which mountain range is known for its rich biodiversity and is recognized as one of the world’s eight hottest biodiversity hotspots?
    • Answer: Western Ghats
  6. Which range of mountains is characterized by rugged terrain, deep valleys, and dense forests in central India?
    • Answer: Satpura Range
  7. Which are the two major rivers originating in the Western Ghats?
    • Answer: The Godavari and the Krishna
  8. Which state in India is the only hill station located in the Aravalli Range?
    • Answer: Rajasthan (Mount Abu)
  9. Which ancient fold mountain range is considered one of the oldest in the world?
    • Answer: Aravalli Range
  10. Which mountain range influences the Indian monsoon by acting as a barrier to cold winds from Central Asia?
    • Answer: Himalayas




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