Geography UPSC Notes

Branches of geography

1.Physical Geography: Studies the natural, non-living aspects of Earth, including the physical processes that shape its landscapes, atmosphere, oceans, and climate.

 Key areas: Geomorphology (landforms), hydrology (water), climatology (weather and climate), biogeography (plant and animal distribution), oceanography (oceans).

2. Human Geography: Studies the relationship between humans and their environment, exploring how humans affect and are affected by the social, cultural, political, and economic landscapes they inhabit.

 Key areas: Population geography, cultural geography, political geography, urban geography, economic geography.

3. Environmental Geography: Examines the interactions between physical and human systems, focusing on the environmental challenges facing our planet and how humans can manage them responsibly.

 Key areas: Sustainability, climate change, resource management, pollution, conservation.