HomeGeneral KnowledgeIndian Polity Short Notes For Exams part 5

Indian Polity Short Notes For Exams part 5

Union and State Public Service Commissions

  • Constitution provides a Public Service Commission for the Union and each state, or a Joint Public Service Commission for a group of states.
  • Appointment by the President for the Union or Joint Commission, and by the Governor for the State Commission.
  • At least half of the members should be civil servants with 10 years experience in central or state services.
  • Age of retirement: UPSC – 65 years, State or Joint Commission – 62 years.

Elections (Article 324-329)

  • Election Commission vested with superintendence, direction, and control of elections.
  • Single electoral roll for every constituency.
  • No discrimination based on race, religion, caste, or sex for inclusion in electoral rolls.
  • Elections based on adult suffrage for citizens aged 18 and above.
  • Registration of Political Parties Act, 1951 governs registration with Election Commission.

Political Parties:

  • 8 National Parties in India: BJP, Congress, BSP, NCP, CPI, CPM, Trinamool Congress, and National People’s Party.
  • Criteria for recognition as a National or State party based on vote percentage and seats won.
  • Election petitions for President and Vice-President filed with the Supreme Court.

Various Commissions

Election Commission:

  • Autonomous, quasi-judiciary constitutional body established under Article 324.
  • Established on 25th January, 1950. First Chief Election Commissioner: Sukumar Sen.

Planning Commission:

  • Established in March, 1950. Replaced by NITI Aayog.
  • Aimed at involving states in economic policy-making.

NITI Aayog:

  • Policy think-tank of Union Government, replacing Planning Commission.
  • Aims to involve states in economic policy-making.
  • Headed by Prime Minister.

National Development Council (NDC):

  • Formed in 1952 to review national plans and associate states in formulation.
  • Chaired by the Prime Minister.
  • Proposed for abolition since the establishment of NITI Aayog.

Finance Commission:

  • Quasi-judicial body constituted every fifth year under Article 280.
  • Recommends on the distribution of taxes between center and states.
  • 15th Finance Commission chaired by NK Singh, appointed on 2nd January, 2017.


  • Definition: Technology-driven governance, integrating technology in both governing and being governed.
  • Perspective: Utilizes technology for efficient governance and citizen engagement.

Basic Models:

  • G2C: Government to Citizens
  • G2B: Government to Business
  • G2E: Government to Employees
  • G2G: Government to Governments
  • C2G: Citizens to Governments

National e-Governance Plan (NeGP):

  • Integrates e-governance initiatives into a collective vision.
  • Takes a holistic view of e-governance initiatives across the country.


  • Makes government offices work smartly.
  • Makes services available to citizens through the internet.

Successful Projects:

  • Railways Reservation System
  • MCA 21: Ministry of Corporate Affairs
  • Bhoomi Project: Andhra Pradesh


  • Mission mode under e-governance.
  • Objective: Computerization of services.
  • Programs in states like Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, and Haryana.




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